Arriving in economics through unusual paths (as a higher civil servant at the Corps des Ponts et Chaussées), I started my career as a Research Fellow at the CERMAP (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Mathématiques Appliquées à la Planification) and subsequently at the CEPREMAP (the Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et de Recherches en Economie Mathématique Appliqueés à la Planification).

I did research in economics from a series of positions, namely as Chargé, Maître, and finally Directeur de recherche at the CNRS, the French National Center for Scientific Research. 

By choice rather than a necessity, teaching was an integral part of my career. I taught in France in several Grandes Ecoles and Universities in Paris as well as elsewhere in the world, for example as Lent term professor at the London School of Economics and during my numerous short visits in North American Universities (Penn, Harvard, etc). In a more permanent fashion I now teach at the EHESS [ link to photo ], the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, where I am Directeur d'études (tenured professor) since 1979.

At the Collège de France, teaching has become my first duty. The opening lecture of the chair has been reproduced in the journal Revue d'Economie Politique (2002) under the title ``The state and the market : erudite constructions and spontaneous wisdom'' (L'Etat et le marché : constructions savantes et pensée spontanée), (119), 6, Nov-Dec. 2002, p. 799-814.

The conduct of research remains a significant chapter of my activities. In particular, I have been the co-founder of DELTA along with François Bourguignon [ link to photo ], and its acting director from 1991 to 2000. I had also been appointed by François Furet, then president of EHESS, as head of the doctoral group Analyse et Politique Economique, from 1981 to 1991. (see Scientific Responsibilities page). At the moment, I am the President of the Administrative Council of the Ecole d'Economie de Paris (Paris School of Economics), the suceeding situation of the previous institutions.

Policy oriented advice is another chapter of activities: a membership of Conseil d'Analyse Economique (the Council of Economic Advisors under the French Prime Minister) being its last avatar.

It is an honour to have been able to serve the profession as a member of the editorial board of several high quality journals in Economics, as well as a council member of learned societies, in particular as a Co-editor of Econometrica from 1984 to 1989, as President of the European Economic Association in 1994, as well as President of the Econometric Society in 1996 and of the Association Française de Science Economique in 2003.

To these honorable positions, I've been honored by the distictions of the Medaille d'Argent (Silver Medal) of the CNRS in 1993, being an Honorary Foreign Member of the American Economic Association since 1997, as well as being a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2000.

My publications are presented in a comprehensive list, bearing on the issues of General Equilibrium, Applied Public Economics, Theoretical Public Economics with emphasis on public policies and cost benefit analysis, the Economics of Climate Change, Theoretical Public Economics with an emphasis on the issues of taxation and redistribution, Incentives and Contracts, Endogenous Fluctuations, the Rationality of Expectations, and Miscellaneous other issues.