Born in 1926.
Deceased in 2014.
Student at the E.N.S. (Ulm) from 1946 to 1950.
Professor at the Collège de France from 1986 to 1997 (History of Contemporary, France).
His most numerous works and books are concerning the political history of France, mainly in the XIXth century, fewer in the XXth, especially on the definition of the Republic, and on a specific problem : politics in the popular classes and the « politicization » of the masses.
His most recent investigations, still in progress, are concerning the visual representations of the Republic in France (busts and statues, coins, stamps, cartoons, and so on), with some comparisons concerning other nations; sometimes consorting with the general theory of political symbols, and sometimes with the problem of distribution of rules according to the sexes (gender history).