James Q. Whitman is Ford Foundation Professor of Comparative and Foreign Law at Yale University. He is the author of numerous books and articles, including Hitler’s America Model (2017), The Verdict of Battle (2012), The Origins of Reasonable Doubt (2008), and Harsh Justice: Criminal Punishment and the Widening Divide between America and Europe (2003). He holds a degree in law from Yale, and a doctorate in history from the University of Chicago, where he was a student of Arnaldo Momigliano.