The 1026 Summit of the G3 (Group of Three) of Central Asia

In 1026 an envoy from the Liao Emperor Shengzong arrived in the court of Mahmud of Ghazna and proposed that the two powers establish diplomatic relations. Mahmud rejected the overture on the grounds that the Liao were not Muslim (they were Buddhist). This paper explores why Mahmud reacted as he did and the nature of the ties linking the Muslim and Buddhist Central Asia.