Amaury Lambert graduated from Ecole Polytechnique in 1997 and received a PhD in probability theory in 2001 from Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC Univ Paris 6). He then spent 7 years as a UPMC assistant professor at the Lab of Ecology and Evolution of Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS Paris). In 2008, Amaury was hired as a Sorbonne Université full professor, and remained until 2021 a member of the Laboratory of probability, statistics and modeling (LPSM).

Since 2021, he has been professor at ENS and dean of education at the biology department, where he teaches mathematics, ecology and evolution.

In 2011, he had founded SMILE – "Stochastic Models for the Inference of Life Evolution", a research group hosted at CIRB (Collège de France) which gathers biologists and mathematicians modeling and inferring evolutionary processes at various scales of time, space and taxonomy, ranging from population genetics to epidemiology and ecology, and from somatic evolution (development, immunity, cancer) to the biology of environmental change (adaptation, conservation genomics) and macro-evolution (diversification of species and of nucleic acid sequences).

Amaury gives time to the promotion of open access publication (Peer Community In, Mersenne) and to mitigating/adapting to global change through: 1) reducing research carbon emissions (Greencom@CIRB @LPSM and @IBENS, Labos 1point5) and 2) designing higher education curricula dedicated to climatic, ecological and social transitions (@CERES, ENS).