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In a famous passage Frege wrote:

"If someone wants to say today what he expressed yesterday using the word 'today', he will replace this word with 'yesterday'. Although the thought is the same, the verbal expression must be different in order that the change of sense which would otherwise be effected by the differing times of utterance may be cancelled out."

What Frege says here is compatible with two possible views. On one view, indexicality is not an intrinsic property of certain thoughts, but a property of certain linguistic expressions or, rather, of the relation between these expressions and the thoughts they (contribute to) express: indexical sentences express thoughts only with respect to context, and different indexical expressions have to be used to express the same thought in different contexts. On another view, indexicality is 'essential' (Perry): it is a property of thoughts themselves and not merely of their linguistic expression. According to this view there are indexical thoughts, corresponding to the indexical sentences that express them. Still, it is possible to hold, with Frege, that 'the thought is the same' when you think of a certain day as 'today' and when, the following day, you think of it as 'yesterday'. Although indexical, the thought that is expressed is 'dynamic' and stays the same through the change of context, despite lower-level differences (Evans).

The second view is attractive but it raises the issue of 'cognitive dynamics' (Kaplan): when does an indexical thought become another thought because of a contextual change, and when does it stay the same despite the change? This workshop is devoted to that issue, and to the more general issue of the nature of indexical thought.


  • Vojislav Bozickovic (University of Belgrade)
    Indexical Dynamics: Belief Retention and Cognitive Significance
  • Tadeusz Ciecierski (University of Warsaw)
    Content-Bearers and Indexicality
  • Carlos Mario Márquez Sosa (Federal University of ABC / UFABC), Ludovic Soutif (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro)
    An Occasion-Sensitive Account of the Indexical Dynamics
  • Michael Murez (Université de Nantes)
    Cognitive Dynamics as Mental Vehicle Identity: A Parity Argument from Polysemy
  • David Papineau (King’s College, London)
    Indexicality’s Minor Role in Thought
  • Maria de Ponte Azkarate (University of the Basque Country), Kepa Korta (University of the Basque Country)
    Ephemeral Episodes, Durable Contents
  • François Recanati (Collège de France)
    Dynamic Modes of Presentation
  • Stefan Rinner (University of Duisburg-Essen)
    Indexicals: A Problem for Chalmers’ Two-Dimensional Semantics
  • Matheus Valente (University of Barcelona (LOGOS) & University of Valencia)
    Now and Then: The Dynamics of Self-Locating Beliefs
  • Víctor M. Verdejo (Pompeu Fabra University)
    Indexical Dynamics and Composite Modes of Presentation
  • David Zapero (University of Bonn)
    Can Thoughts Point?

Session étudiante

  • Bernardo Marques (ENS de Paris)
    Dynamic Content and the Prospects for a Three-level Account of Content.
  • Taku Uchiyama (Georg-August-University, Göttingen)
    Knowing How to Keep Track of Particulars