Bibliography

Research activity

Thematic topic

Early Hominids story (Mio-Pliocene) and their paleoenvironments

Keywords: Paleontology, Early Hominids, Mammals Ongulates, Evolution, Systematic, Phylogeny, Biochronology, Paleoecology, Paleoenvironements, Paleobiogeography.

Main results

Mio-Pliocene of Chad in Central Africa: Discovery of the first Australopithecins (Australopithecus bahrelghazali, Brunet & al.,1996) known west of the Rift Valley (Nature, No. 378, pp. 273-275, 1995; PNAS, No. 105(9), pp. 3226-3231, 2008), of the earliest hominids (Sahelanthropus tchadensis Brunet & al. 2002) known in Africa (Nature, No 418: pp. 145-151, 2002; Nature, No. 419, p. 582, 2002; Nature, No. 434, pp. 752-755, 2005; Nature, No. 434, pp. 755-759, 2005; PNAS, No. 102(52), pp. 18836-18841, 2005; PNAS, No. 105(9), pp. 3226-3231, 2008 ) and of more 500 vertebrate fossiliferous localities in the Chad Mio-Plio-Quaternary (Nature, No. 418, pp. 152-155, 2002; Science, No. 311, p. 821, 2006 ; PNAS, No. 105(9), pp. 3226-3231, 2008).

These new discoveries in Central Africa lead us to a drastic revision of our hypothesis about the origin and the first steps of the human group.

International Research Programs

Direction and/or Participation to national and international scientific programs:

M.P.F.E.: Mission Paléoanthropologique et Paléontologique Franco-Egyptienne (Dir. M. Brunet), collaboration scientifique entre Collège de France, Université de Poitiers et Université du Caire; deux missions de terrain ont eu lieu depuis 2007 ;

M.P.F.L.: Mission Paléoanthropologique et Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne (Dir. M. Brunet), convention de recherche signée le 25 Novembre 2005 entre l'Université de Poitiers et l'Université Al Fateh de Tripoli ; trois missions de terrain ont eu lieu depuis 2006;

M.P.F.T.: Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne (Dir. M. Brunet) depuis 1994 ; convention de recherche entre l'Université de Poitiers, le CNAR et l'Université de N'Djamena (depuis1995). Ce programme international (10 nationalités) et pluridisciplinaire regroupe maintenant une soixantaine de chercheurs ;

Middle Awash Research Project (Ethiopie) (Dir. T.D. White, Pr. University of California, Berkeley, USA depuis 2000).

Directeur depuis le 01 01 2008, au titre du Collège de France, d'un GDRI CNRS regroupant: Chaire de Paléontologie humaine du Collège de France ; IPHEP UMR CNRS 6046 de l'Université de Poitiers ; Anthropology Department Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; Human Evolution Research Center (HERC) University of California at Berkeley, USA.

CNRS/ECLIPSE: Les Hominidés anciens d'Afrique Centrale (depuis 2000) ;

Head of a ANR program 2005-2008: "de l'origine des Anthropoïdes à l'émergence des Hominidés,: Evolution et environnements" (Université de Poitiers et Université de Montpellier II) ;

N.S.F./R.H.O.I.: "Revealing Hominid Origins Initiative", National Science Foundation Project (co- P.I.'s Pr. F.C. Howell & T.D. White, University of California at Berkeley), since 2003.

Field Experience

Geological and paleontological field surveys in Afghanistan (1977-1979); Iraq (1979); Pakistan (1981, 1983); Cameroon (1984-1993); Nigeria (1988, 1989); Togo (1988); Spain (1992-1994); Romania (1994); Vietnam (1994); Kazakhstan (1995); South Africa (1997-1998); Chad (since 1994).

Current Field data collecting

Africa: Chad, Libya, Egypt.

Graduate student training

PhD thesis University of Poitiers: Paleoneurology, 3D reconstruction of the Toumaï cranium endocast using synchrotron CT scans (beginning September 2007, granted by the French research Ministery), Advisor M  Brunet & co-advisor Franck Guy CR1 CNRS IPHEP.

Selected Publications

Author or co-author of more 240 scientific publications

1. A.E. Lebatard, D.L. Bourles, Ph. Duringer, M. Jolivet, R. Braucher, J. Carcaillet, M. Schuster, M. Arnaud, P. Monie, F. Lihoreau, A. Likius, H.T. Mackaye, P. Vignaud & M. Brunet, "Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali Mio-Pliocene early Hominids from Chad", PNAS, No. 105(9): pp. 3226-3231, 2008.

2. P. Sepuchre, G. Ramstein, F. Fluteau, M. Schuster, J-J. Tiercelin & M. Brunet, "Tectonic Uplift and Eastern Africa aridification", Science, No. 313, pp. 1419-1423, 2006.

3. F. Lihoreau, J.-R. Boisserie, L. Viriot, Y. Coppens, A. Likius, H.T. Mackaye, P. Tafforeau, P. Vignaud & M. Brunet, "Evidence for Late Miocene Chado-Libyan bioprovince: a new possible dispersal ability for early Chadian Hominids", PNAS, No. 23, pp. 8763-8767, 2006.

4. M. Schuster, P. Duringer, J.-F. Ghienne, P. Vignaud, H.T. Mackaye, A. Likius & M. Brunet, "The age of the Sahara Desert", Science, No. 311, p. 421, 2006.

5. F. Guy, D.E. Lieberman, D. Pilbeam, M. Ponce De Leon, A. Likius, H.T. Mackaye, P. Vignaud, C.P.E. Zollikoffer & M. Brunet, "Morphological affinities of the Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Late Miocene hominid from Chad) cranium", PNAS, No. 102(52), pp. 18836-18841, 2005.

6. J.R. Boisserie, F. Lihoreau & M. Brunet, "The position of Hippopotamidae within the Cetartiodactyla", PNAS, No. 102, pp. 1537-1541, 2005.

7. M. Brunet, F. Guy, D. Pilbeam, D.E. Lieberman, A. Likius, H.T. Mackaye, M. Ponce De Leon, C.P.E. Zollikofer & P. Vignaud, "New material of the Earliest Hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad", Nature, No. 434, pp. 753-755, 2005.

8. C.P.E. Zollikofer, M.S. Ponce De Leon, D.E. Lieberman, F. Guy, D. Pilbeam, A. Likius, H.T. Mackaye, P. Vignaud & M. Brunet, "Virtual Cranial Reconstruction of Sahelanthropus tchadensis" Nature, No. 434, pp. 755-759, 2005.

9. M. Brunet & MPFT, "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa", Nature, No. 418, pp. 145-151, 2002.

10. P. Vignaud, P. Duringer, Mackaye H. Taisso, Likius Andossa, C. Blondel, J.R. Boisserie, L. De Bonis, V. Eisenmann, D. Geraads, F. Guy, T. Lehmann, F. Lihoreau, N. Lopez-Martinez, C. Mourer-Chauvire, O. Otero, J.C. Rage, M. Schuster, L. Viriot, A. Zazzo & M. Brunet, "Geology and Palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros Menalla hominid locality, Chad", Nature, No. 418, pp. 152-155, 2002.

11. M. Brunet & al., "Reply to Sahelanthropus or Sahelpithecus, Wolpoff & al", Nature, No. 419, p. 582, 2002.

12. M. Brunet, A. Beauvilain, Y. Coppens, E. Heintz, A.H.E. Moutaye & D. Pilbeam, "Australopithecus bahrelghazali une nouvelle espèce d'Hominidé ancien de la région de Koro Toro (Tchad)", C.R. Acad. Sc., No. 322,: pp. 907-913, Paris, Iia, 1996.

13. M. Brunet, A. Beauvilain, Y. Coppens, E. Heintz, A.H.E. Moutaye, D. Pilbeam, "The first australopithecine recovered west of the Rift Valley (Koro Toro region, Republic of Chad)", Nature, No. 378, pp. 273-275, 1995.

Classes

Collège de France, Chaire de Paléontologie humaine: Lectures and Seminars (2007-2010), "Early Hominds... A new story in the light of recent discoveries", amphithéâtre Marguerite de Navarre, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris cedex 05.

Invited Speaker: selected lectures

All these lectures deal with primitive Hominids and their associated faunas discovered west of the Rift Valley (Chad, Central Africa), and their implications on the Origin and the Environments of the early Hominids.

Austria: EGU Vienna;

Brazil: Brazil Academy of Sciences, Rio de Janeiro; Brasilia University; Sao Paolo University;

Chad: N'Djaména University; Palais du 15 janvier;

Chile: Colloque "Emergencia de una Nueva Conciencia Ecologica", Santiago del Chili;

China: Beijing Academy of Sciences;

Egypt: Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria;

France: Academy of Sciences, Paris, Collège de France, Paris; CEREGE Aix-en-Provence; UPR 9034 Evolution, Génomes & Spéciation Gif-Sur-Yvette; LSCE / CEA Gif sur Yvette; Laboratoire Astrophysique: DAPNIA Saclay; Louis Pasteur University , Strasbourg; University & IUFM Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe; ENS de Lyon; Ecole des Mines Douai; ESRF (Synchrotron), Grenoble; BRGM, Orléans; Institut du Monde Arabe, CNRS/SDV, Paris; Cité des Sciences Paris; Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; CCSTI Marseille, Nantes & Poitiers; MNHN Paris; National Museum of Prehistory, Les Eyzies de Tayac; Popular University of Lille; Paléosite, Saintes; UNESCO, Paris; Strasbourg University, ISIS Institute;

Germany: Potsdam University;

Haïti: TBA Port au Prince;

Hungaria: Hungaria Academy of Sciences, Budapest;

Israel: Tel Aviv University;

Japan: National Science Museum, Tokyo LIBYA: Al Fateh University, Tripoli;

Luxemburg: Luxemburg University;

Spain: Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Museum de Paléontologia of Barcelona;

South Africa: Robert Broom Memorial Conference, Transvaal Museum de Pretoria;Medecine School & African Genesis Colloqium: Witwatersrand University, Johannesburg;

Switzerland: Archeologic Society of Lugano;

Tanzania: Olduvaï Gorges Museum;

USA: Harvard University; University of California, Berkeley; Stanford University, Palo Alto; Georgetown University Washington DC; Bâton Rouge University, Louisiane; South Arizona University, Tempe Arizona; Kent State University, Ohio; Hamline University, Minneapolis; University of Alabama, Birmingham; Chapman University, Denver; Cleveland Museum Natural History, Cleveland,Ohio; Fernbank Museum Atlanta; Cranbrook Museum, Detroit; Miami Science Museum, Miami; Carnegie Public Library, San Juan, Porto Rico; Leakey Foundation San Francisco; LSB Leakey Centennial, Chicago;

Vietnam: Hanoï University and Museum.

Scientific popularization

Toumaï, the guest of the Aichi 2005 World Exposition, Japan: "In Chad...The new Ancestor..." (22 millions of visitors).

Realisation and production of several scientific documentaries with the French Society Gedeon Programmes: Origine de l'Homme : la piste d'Abel (1997); Toumaï the dawn of Humanity (2005, Aichi Japan); Toumaï le nouvel ancêtre (Michel Brunet is co-author and scientific advisor).

TV and radio: TF1, France 2, ARTE, Canal+, France Culture, France Inter, France Info, Europe 1, RTL, Radio Classique...

Newspapers, magazines and webmagazines: Le Monde, Libération, Le Figaro, L'Humanité, La Croix, L'Express, Le Point, Le Nouvel Observateur, Télérama, La Recherche, Science et Avenir, Science et vie, Time, Newsweek, Science, Nature, etc... several thousand reports in international, national and regional newspapers and magazines.

Research management

Tenure of Chaire de Paléontologie humaine du Collège de France (1st December 2007)

Head of laboratoratory of Geobiology, Biochronology and Human Paleontology, UMR CNRS 6046 since 1st January 2000 to December 2007

Head, DEA Palaeontology, Phylogeny, Poitiers (2000-2007)

CNRS, Member of National Committee, Section 29 (since September 2004)

Expert Member of Scientific Committee of the CNRS Program "ECLIPSE" (Environnement et climats du passé : Histoire et Evolution) (2000-2008)

Expert Member of Scientific Committee of the CNRS Program PEH: Paléoenvironnement, évolution des Hominidés (1997-2000)

Expert Member of Scientific Committee of the FSP Program "Paléontologie au Tchad" (Fonds de Solidarité Prioritaire du Ministère Français des Affaires Etrangères) (since March 2006)

President of the scientific committee of the Centre de Valorisation des Collections of Poitiers University (CVCU)

Vice President of CCSTI Pierre Mendès France, Poitiers